The decrees of the Republic of Uzbekistan «On education» and «National Program in Education» provide training of specialists for all branches and fields of economy, including art education. On the contemporary stage of social development great significance belongs to working out and publication of new schoolbooks, which are based not just on new tendencies in pedagogical science but consider changed social, cultural and historical context.
The scientists of the republic pay great attention to creation of new schoolbooks both for secondary and specialized schools. One of such schoolbooks is «Rangtasvir» («Painting») for 5 — 9 forms in Uzbek language. Its authors — the famous artists and teachers, T. Kuziev, A. Egamov, T. Kanoatov and A. Nurkabilov. Chief Editor — Academician of the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan A. Khakimov. This is the first experience — even high art school has not still had such schoolbook. The schoolbook was recommended to publication by the Academy of Arts of Uzbekistan, Ministry for Public Education, Republican Center of Education, Scientific and Methodic Center of Fine Arts.
A main task of this schoolbook — training in art culture and formation of creative minding and activity of pupils. The book teaches to estimate pieces of art and acquaints with works of famous artists, their life and work.
The authors set the following tasks:
- to promote development of art talent, taste and creative minding of pupils;
- to give basic knowledge in painting art: chiaroscuro, study of colour, etc., to develop space imagination, to give initial knowledge in genres, styles, terms and definitions in painting;
- to develop skills in perception and use of colour in painting;
- to develop respect to national and panhuman art values.This course is given in addition to all other school courses, adds them and generalizes program material. The schoolbook «Painting» opens the wonderful world of art to children and helps to start their own creative activity. Its fundamental task is formation of art minding through adaptation of methods and secrets of this art.
The authors give elements of specificity of colour, its perception, space properties and grades; principles and methods of drawing; skills in painting from nature and from imaginative idea. Development of child creativity implies adaptation of principles and rules given in the book and probation them in practice.
The book promotes development of skills in realistic reflection of reality, formation of art world vision, aesthetic taste, imagination and ability of independent creative activity. Genre features of the art are given on the basis of history of painting. The textbook contains List of literature recommended to pupils in order to acquaint them with different directions and styles in art and to broaden their outlook.
The textbook includes exercises, which can be done at classes and as homework (in much extent). The lessons devoted to «still life», «landscape», «composition» take one or two classes but it is provided to add hours. The section «Exercises», which completes each chapter, includes sketching from nature and from mind. Important is the order of exercises, which are closely connected with each other.
Before start of sketching, the pupils should clearly understand and see what they are going to draw. For that, it is necessary to ask them some problematic questions, to use «method of drawing by words», to spend some minutes for composition thinking over, to show drawings and instruments.
Training should be performed in a process of work at nature. Only in this case the pupils will be able to feel it fully and will obtain secrets of painting. It is necessary to mention that all system of classes aims to many — sidedness of training in chosen field.
In order to keep interest of children to classes during five years, it is necessary to arrange each class on the basis of clear and deep realization of permanently refreshable emotions and impressions. The best samples of world and domestic art illustrate the textbook, what much enriches its deep theoretic content.
The work at the schoolbook on painting art is being continued, and soon two following volumes «Drawing» and «Elementary composition» will be published.
Author: Ablaberdi Egamov